# p value Calculator in Excel

## Calculating a p value is Easy - Interpreting It is Hard

One subject that inspires much head-desk banging is interpreting the results of statistical hypothesis tests. It seems that students easily learn how to perform the calculations required by a given test but get hung up on interpreting the results.

- Student Post on Cross Validated

Any Statistical Software package, including Excel, can calculate p values. However, very few will help you interpret the results. Fortunately, QI Macros Add-in for Excel does both.

### QI Macros Calculates p values and Interprets Them for You

A p value (probability value) is used in hypothesis testing to determine the statistical significance of what a sample is telling you about a population.

The p-value is a number between 0 and 1 and is interpreted against a desired level of significance (.05) as follows:
Value
Strength of Evidence
Reject the Null Hypothesis?
Means and Variances

small p-value
less than 0.05

Strong evidence against the null hypothesis Reject the null hypothesis Means or Variances are not the same
large p-value
greater than 0.05
Weak evidence against the null hypothesis Fail to reject the null hypothesis Means or Variances are the same
p-value = .05
or is close to it

Evidence does not point strongly either way
Can either reject or
fail to reject the null hypothesis
Means or Variances may be the same.

Note: .05 and .01 are the most common levels of significance used.

### Example of a QI Macros t test and p value calculation QI Macros compares the p-value to the significance level for you and translates that into whether you can reject or cannot reject the null hypothesis. It further interprets whether the means are equal (the same) or not equal (different.)

QI Macros results are also interactive and let you change the significance level and Hypothesized Difference in Means to see what impact those changes have on your results. See areas outlined in red in the results image above.

### Why Choose QI Macros Statistical Software for Excel? ### Affordable

• Only \$279 USD - less with quantity discounts
• No annual fees
• Free Technical Support ### Easy to Use

• Works Right in Excel
• Interprets Results for You
• Accurate Results Without Worry ### Proven and Trusted

• 100,000 Users in 80 Countries
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