# Process Capability Analysis in Excel

## You Don't Have to be a Black Belt to Perform Capability Analysis

A capable process meets customer requirements 100% of the time. Customer requirements are defined using an upper specification limit (USL) and a lower specification limit (LSL). Think of these specification limits as goal posts.

Not Capable |
Capable |
Not Capable to Centered & Capable |
---|---|---|

Cp < 1, Cpk <1 |
Cp >= 1, Cpk >= 1 |

**Process capability metrics** are used to determine how well the output of a stable process meets these specifications:

### Cp and Cpk

Process Capability Metrics

**Cp**measures how well the data**would****fit within**the spec limits (USL, LSL)

**Cpk**measures how centered the data is between the spec limits.- Use
**Cp Cpk**when you have a**sample**, not the population, and are testing the potential capability of a process to meet customer needs.

**Cp and Cpk use Sigma estimator.**

### Pp and Ppk

Process Performance Metrics

**Pp**measures how well the data**would****fit within**the spec limits (USL, LSL)

**Ppk**measures how centered the data is between the spec limits.- Use
**Pp****Ppk**when you have the**total population**and are testing the performance of a system to meet customer needs.

**Pp, Ppk use standard deviation.**

### Cp vs Cpk Examples

#### Fits But Is Not Centered

Process improvement goal is to make changes that will move the output closer to the target without increasing variation.

#### Centered But Does Not Fit

Process improvement goal is to reduce variation so that the process fits between the spec limits.

### Capability Analysis Metrics Rules of Thumb

**Cp>1**Process is capable (product will fit between the customer's upper and lower specification limits if the process is centered).**Cpk>1**Process is capable and centered between the LSL and USL.- If Cp=Cpk the process is centered at the midpoint of the specification limits.
- If Cp>Cpk the process is off-center.
- Cp and Cpk should be close in value to Pp and Ppk.
- If Cp and Cpk are much greater than Pp or Ppk (
*33% greater*), your process may not be stable enough to conduct a capability analysis. Use control charts to evaluate the stability of your process.

### QI Macros Tools that Perform Process Capability Analysis

**Histogram**- calculates Cp, Cpk, Pp, Ppk and twenty other metrics using your data and spec limits.**Capability Suite**- creates six charts including histogram, control charts, probability plot, values plot and capability plot. Also calculates Cp, Cpk and Pp, Ppk.**Cp Cpk Template**- calculates Cp, Cpk and Pp, Ppk on multiple sets of data.