Gage R&R Example

If My Parts Are So Good, Why Is My Gage R&R So Bad?

Almost every week, we get this question from someone trying to conduct a Gage R&R study because their customers are requiring it. They think if their product is good, their Gage R&R should be too.

Tip: A Gage R&R Study does NOT evaluate your product.
It evaluates your ability to MEASURE your product accurately and consistently

You need BAD parts to conduct a GOOD Gage R&R Study

Gage R&R Study Basics

Gage repeatability and reproducibility calculates the total variation (TV) from three factors. It then uses total variation to determine how much variation is attributable to appraisers and equipment (%R&R).

part variation

Part Variation (PV)
Difference between individual parts

equipment variation

Equipment Variation (EV) - Repeatability
Can one person, using the same gage, measure the same part consistently?

appraiser variation

Appraiser Variation (AV) - Reproducibility
Can two people using the same gage, measure the same part consistently?

If your parts are identical, there is NO Part Variation and all of the variation falls to the appraisers and equipment.

How to Set Up a Good Gage R&R Study

Gage R&R Example

I have dozens of examples, but here's a recent one. The supplier produces parts:

  • Target: 43.11
  • Tolerance: +/-0.13 (0.26 total)

They measured 10 parts with three appraisers. As you can see from the data table below, all parts are only off from the target by a few thousands. NO PART VARIATION.

Gauge R&R Example Data 

If we run a frequency histogram on this data, you'll see that the capability indices (Cp, Cpk, Pp, Ppk) are excellent:

Gage R&R Capability 

Even though the parts are good, they are too good for the measurement system. When we put this into the QI Macros Gage R&R template, the results are pretty bad. 
%R&R = 97.8% (should be less than 10%). Look at part variation: PV = 0.0001:

Gauge R&R Bad 

NDC: Now look at the Number of Distinct Categories (0). If your NDC is less than 5, there isn't enough part variation to use the Average and Range Method or the ANOVA method to calculate Gage R&R:

Gage R&R NDC

The only method left is:

  • Specification Tolerance Method (USL-LSL)
    One-sided Specification Tolerance 2*(USL-Xbar) or 2*(Xbar-LSL)

If you set the specification tolerance (AIAG MSA V3 pgs. 116-117), you can use the specification tolerance (0.26) instead of TV to calculate %R&R (1.1%):

Gauge R&R using Specification Tolerance

You can even use the specification tolerance with the ANOVA method (%R&R = 1.3%):

Gauge R&R Example Anova

But, it can still be hard to explain this to your customers.

A better choice is to go back and make sure you have 10 parts that span the tolerance: (42.98-43.24):

42.98, 43.01, 43.04, 43.07, 43.10, 43.13, 43.16, 43.19, 43.22, 43.24

When you do, there's much more part variation and the Gage R&R will change accordingly. Now, NDC is higher than 5 and %R&R is 0.6%:

Gage R&R with adequate part variation

Here's the Point

Gage R&R doesn't measure the quality of your parts, only the quality of your measurement system. If you want customers to trust your part quality, you have to learn how to properly evaluate measurement variation.

Learn More...


Do you have more than 3 appraisers?

If you want to perform a Gage R&R Study, but have more than 3 appraisers, use multiple Gage R&R templates side by side. Note that it is not possible to add more than 3 appraisers to a Gage R&R template with QI Macros.

Why Choose QI Macros Gage R&R Software for Excel?



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